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Advanced Lithography for Biophotonic & Optofluidic Applications

Advanced Lithography for Biophotonic & Optofluidic Applications
Type: Block lecture
Semester: WS 17/18

Block course
Hector Auditorium (Bldg. 02.95)


PD Dr. Timo Mappes

Lv-No.: 2141891
Exam: The oral exam is by appointment (20 minutes).

For registration, please send an email to miriam.sonnenbichler@kit.edu

Additional information:

Lecture language: English
Prerequisites: Basic knowledge in physics

Overall Course objectives:

The students build knowledge on process technology for the fabrication of (hybrid) micro- and nano-devices with a broad variety of lithographical methods. They learn to compare the advantages and disadvantages of different technological approaches, including their economic boundary conditions. They understand how to create advanced integrated optofluidic and biophotonic systems e.g. for sensing & sorting and tailored light guiding. They acquire the competence to compare and select lithographical patterning processes for the technical device to be created.

Learning targets:

While fulfilling the learning targets, the students

  • are familiar with the working principle of scanning electron microscopes and their similarity to electron beam lithography, including electron sources and machine types. They understand secondary effects and can develop solutions how to avoid those for lithography. They understand the working principle of focussed ion beam machines and their application in fabrication, preparation and (correlative) microscopy. 
  • are familiar with the processes required for multi-photon-lithography in resist and glass as well as their application for (hybrid) optofluidic and biophotonic systems.
  • understand the physical effects in advanced immersion and next generation lithography, in particular EUV lithography
  • know how to evaluate a new lithographical method and may elaborate on its probability to be introduced in mass fabrication. In particular, they have a good understanding of the challenges in microfabrication, including the strategies to avoid pattern defects like e.g. structure collapse
  • understand the applicative needs and technical production prerequisites for the generation of scaffolds to be used as tools for the study of cell clusters e.g. in biology and medicine
  • are familiar with the realization of optofluidic systems to be used for integrated sensing, light guiding and tailored particle fabrication

Course Content:

This modul is introducing the application of advanced lithographic patterning for applications in optofluidics and biophotonics.  With an overview on typical applications of micro optical and nano photonic systems, the challenges of lithographic patterning for their fabrication are motivated. The fabrication chain for high-end structures covering is discussed, starting from electron beam machines and their similarities to scanning electron microscopes. The available and the perspective for new and novel processes of parallel and serial lithography are discussed. The working principles of lithography machines as well as their limitations are presented. Aspects for masked-based optical lithography and multi-photon lithography in a broad range of materials are elaborated on. The challenges for resolution enhancement with immersion lithography are discussed by a problem-based learning approach. Subsequently the numerous technological (including source and beam-shaping) and economic implications of the introduction of extreme ultra violet (EUV) lithography are discussed. In order to consolidate the interrelations of the individual process steps, the micro fabrication of (hybrid) optofluidic and biophotonic systems are discussed in detail. The particular boundary conditions to enable the application of those systems in biology and medicine as well as in sensing and imaging are elaborated on.


  • M.J. Madou: Fundamentals of Microfabrication and Nanotechnology. Taylor & Francis Ltd., 3rd ed., CRC Press 2011. ISBN 0849331803
  • A.R. Hawkins, H. Schmidt: Handbook of Optofluidics. 1st ed., CRC Press 2010. ISBN 1420093541
  • References to journal publications during the lecture